Project lists

Integrated planning and practices for mangrove management associated with agriculture and aquaculture in Myanmar Return list
20 Mar 2022     

Project title:   Integrated planning and practices    for mangrove management associated with agriculture and aquaculture in    Myanmar 

Supervisory agency:   Forest Department of Myanmar

Department of   Agriculture and Water Resources, Australia

Executing agency: The University of Queensland, Australia

Budget in USD (total / APFNet grant): 564,570/327,170

Kick-off date & duration: January    2018, 01/2018-12/2020
Target economy: Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Site Location: Pyindaye Mangrove   Forest Reserve


- To investigate key issues associated with mangrove conversion and degradation;

- To conduct participatory micro-planning for mangrove management in associated   with agriculture and aquaculture development;

- To apply best practices in mangrove restoration and management and aquaculture   in mangrove forests in the project area;

- To enhance policy development capacity to facilitate design and implementation   of mangrove restoration and management;

-   To contribute to sustainable livelihood and community development within the   project area.

Expected outputs:

- Integrated micro-planning approaches for sustainable mangrove management in associated with agriculture and aquaculture production in the selected landscapes;

- Implementation of the plans developed by the community and the establishment of pilot models   for demonstration of best practices in Myanmar;

-    Capacity   building and expertise exchange;

-    Improvement of ecosystem services, local   livelihoods and the project’s scientific outputs.



Myanmar, while is rich in natural resources and natural beauty, is one of the economies most threatened by the adverse effects of climate change, including more extreme weather events, sea level rise and flooding.


Mangrove forests are perhaps the last frontier of forests before the sea takes over and act as an important barrier to locally mitigate both sea level rise and the negative effects of flooding. Healthy mangrove forests equal an increased resilience to climate change, crucial habitat for local species and a more stable coast line. At the same time, mangrove forests are often an important part of local people’s livelihoods. In fact, in the Pyindaye Mangrove Forest Reserve, which covers over 48,500 ha, mangrove forests contribute about 25% of the income of households, the highest ratio compared to other income sources. However, the extraction of timber and firewood or a total conversion to other land uses like cropping and aquaculture have threatened these ecosystems.


The APFNet-funded project “Integrated planning and practices for mangrove management associated with agriculture and aquaculture in Myanmar” set out to find new ways to balance the livelihood needs of people and the needs of the ecosystem.


Main Topic: Aquaculture in Restored Mangrove Forests


Aquaculture, while an important component of Myanmar’s economy since 1953, is traditionally regarded as the detriment of mangrove forests, not a possible component. This is due to the fact that generally mangrove forests have been cleared in order to make room for aquaculture, while people have focused much less on integrating both due to increased technical difficulties.


Most of the projects conducted in Myanmar so far have, in fact, focused on single issues or a limited suite of aspects associated with mangrove forest conservation or restoration. Some projects and programs have worked on mangrove restoration while the others have focused on building community forestry institutions and frameworks. Some projects supported the development of aquaculture but did not integrate mangrove forests as important habitat for aquaculture species. Thus many projects have not achieved sustainable success and there is a need to consider both mangrove restoration and livelihood improvement concurrently.


This project will review existing issues and problems in some typical mangrove landscapes in the most important delta of Myanmar, and propose planning and practices for restoration and management of mangrove forests and associated aquaculture and agriculture in the project’s target sites. The core idea is to integrate both in the same area, transforming areas of mangrove restoration that are often of limited immediate direct benefit to local communities into new sites that are a source of sustainable income as well. While such integrated models require more refined techniques than the separated models, with the help of the University of Queensland in close cooperation with the local communities, this should pose no problem.


In fact, throughout the project locally adapted silviculture and aquaculture technical guidelines will be developed that can then be used as future reference and for possible additional sites post-project.


Sub Topic: Participatory Micro-Planning & Co-Management of Resources


In Southeast Asia, often due to resource constraints, strategic planning is mostly only done at the national or regional level. Yet, in order to sustainably manage any given resource, a detailed plan has to be developed for local scales. Of course, the more local the resource, the more local stakeholders should be involved in the development of such a plan.


Based on this knowledge, this project aims to develop such plans through participatory micro-planning, where the plan will both be based on data and information collected, and considering the unique situation and interests of the community through using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA). The plan will first identify key issues associated with mangrove conversion and degradation and identify how mangrove forests will be able to contribute to a sustainable and resilient landscape. Subsequently through participatory land use planning with local staff, community leaders and locals a planning document and pilot model for mangrove restoration within aquaculture production will be devised.


In conjunction with the establishment of such a pilot model, new paths for co-management and benefit sharing between local communities and governmental forest management bodies will be identified. This way both sides will be more effective at cooperating with each other in the future while enjoying the fruits of their labor equally.


(Photos will be added when taken.)



Project Document.pdf